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Reading Resources

Reading Resources

What are the five main areas of reading?
Phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension are the five main areas of reading. To learn more about these areas and access resources to help build better reading skills check out the links below. These links will take you to a different site in a new window. The site is the Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR).
Phonological Awareness
Phonological Awareness is considered an “umbrella” or broad term, which covers aspects of sound identification and manipulation in spoken language. The activities are designed around specific Phonological Awareness skills and are sequenced from simple to complex by the difficulty level of the skill. The activities are divided and identified as:
Students practice recognizing and producing words that rhyme.
Students practice repeating and producing alliterative phrases.
Sentence Segmentation
Students practice segmenting sentences into words.
Students practice blending and segmenting syllables in words.
Onset and Rime
Students practice identifying the initial consonant or consonants (onset) and the vowel and any consonants that follow it (rime).
Students practice blending, segmenting, manipulating, and deleting the individual phonemes (sounds) in words.

The goal of Phonics instruction is to help children use the sound-symbol relationship to read and write words. Phonics skills and are sequenced from simple to complex by the difficulty level of the skill. The activities overlap with phonemic awareness in the area of onset and rime, and also include: Letter Recognition
Students practice matching, identifying, and ordering the letters in the alphabet.
Letter-Sound Correspondence
Students practice identifying and matching sounds to letters (initial, final, and medial).
Word Study
Students practice sorting, blending, segmenting, and manipulating the sounds of letters in words and practice identifying high-frequency words.
Syllable Patterns
Students practice blending and segmenting syllables in words.
Morpheme Structures
Students practice blending compound words, roots and affixes, and roots and inflections to make words.

Fluency is the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression and is the bridge between word recognition and comprehension. The goal of fluent reading is to recognize words automatically. The activities overlap with phonics in the areas of letter recognition and letter sound correspondence, and also include:
High Frequency Words
Students use timed practices to read words.
Oral Reading
Students use timed practices to read with accuracy. Students practice reading with prosody.

Vocabulary refers to the meanings and pronunciation of words necessary for communication. The goal of Vocabulary instruction is to provide students with an understanding of the meaning and use of words so that they can comprehend what they are reading and communicate effectively. The activities are divided and identified as:
Word Identification/Words in Context
Students practice identifying words. Students practice using words to complete or form sentences.
Words That Describe/Word Meaning
Students practice identifying and producing descriptive words. Students practice identifying and producing the meaning of words.
Word Categorization/Word Knowledge
Students practice sorting and producing words by categories. Students practice identifying synonyms, antonyms, and homophones.
Word Structure/Word Analysis
 Students practice identifying compound words, contractions, and affixes. Students practice identifying similarities and differences between the meanings of words.

Comprehension is defined as the ability to understand and get meaning from spoken and written language and is the ultimate goal in learning to read. The goal of Comprehension instruction is to teach children specific strategies to use for understanding text as they are reading. The activities include:
Sentence Structure and Meaning
Students practice identifying important text elements and arranging words to make sentences.
Story Structure
Students practice identifying the sequence of events (beginning, middle, end) and story grammar (setting, characters, problem, solution, important events).
Monitoring for Meaning
Students practice organizing information to gain meaning.
Main Idea/Summarizing
Students practice stating the main ideas in their own words. Students practice summarizing large sections of text.